What is a complex ion?
A complex ion is an ion that consists of a central atom or ion (the metal ion) surrounded by one or more molecules or ions (the ligands). Complex ions are usually formed when a metal ion reacts with a molecule or ion that can serve as a Lewis base (a molecule or ion that can donate a pair of electrons to the metal ion).
What is the oxidation number of copper?
The oxidation number of copper is 2.
How do you name complex ions?
The naming of complex ions is based on the oxidation number of the metal ion. The oxidation number of the metal ion is the charge of the metal ion when it is in its elemental form. In this case, the oxidation number of copper is 2. Therefore, the name of the complex ion is copper(II) hydroxide.
The oxidation number of copper is 2
Complex ions are named using a set system. The first part of the name comes from the metal ion, followed by the anion. The charge on the complex ion is written in Roman numerals in parentheses after the metal ion name. If there is more than one polyatomic anion in the complex ion, they are separated by commas. Finally, if the complex ion is hydrated (has water molecules attached to it), the number of water molecules is written as a subscript after the charge.
For example, the complex ion cunh32h2o22 would be named copper(II) hydroxide hexahydrate.
The name of the complex ion is copper(II) hydroxide
The name of the complex ion is copper(II) hydroxide. The oxidation number of copper is 2 and the 2+ indicates that there are two oxygen atoms in the compound. The -2 charge on the copper atom and the +2 charge on the hydroxide ion combine to give the complex ion a net charge of zero.
What are the uses of complex ions?
Complex ions are used extensively in analytical chemistry, where they are used to separate different metal ions from each other. For example, when a solution of iron(III) chloride is added to a solution of aluminum chloride, the resulting mixture will contain two different types of complex ions: [FeCl4]− and [AlCl4]−. By adding a third reagent, such as sodium hydroxide, the precipitation of one of the two species can be induced, leaving the other in solution. This technique is called selective precipitation and is used routinely in analytical laboratories.
How are complex ions formed?
A complex ion is formed when a metal ion forms a bond with one or more molecules or ions. In most cases, the complex ion will have a charge that is different from the charge of the metal ion. For example, copper(II) ions have a charge of +2, but the complex ion [Cu(H2O)6]2+ has a charge of +6.